Females engaged in milk production need a balanced feeding program by dairy farming. A diet that includes sources of forage, balanced foods, and complementary supplements.
This with the aim of maximizing the productive and profitable life in the establishment. The food of a cow consists basically of a more concentrated fibrous source.
So it will be essential to maintain the optimal relationship between forage material and concentrated feed.
The quality of the milk will depend on this. Likewise, the basic rules for feeding dairy cattle should be taken into account.
Among them, start with high-quality pastures, maximize pasture consumption, choose concentrates low in fiber percentage.
In the same way that they have the minimum cost per unit of energy, adjust the protein of the concentrate according to the type of forage.
Also, have the quantity offered and the level of milk produced, provide a supplement of essential minerals and provide plenty of water.
Prepare the cow nutritionally before giving birth for a high performance in the next suckling.
Keep production records complete and up-to-date, feed to stimulate greater production. Also, recognize that each cow is an individual with its own requirements.
There are three production systems: the extensive, the intensive and the mixed.
Here are the small producers, where the milk produced is consumed by the family. It refers to farms with two or more items, in which dairy products is one of them.
The purpose is primarily consumption and surplus, is marketed. Generally, extensive farms have a low level of technology and genetic improvement is relative.
The daily production of milk is based on pastures, both natural and implanted. There is a minimal concentrated supplementation throughout the year.
And during the winter, cows receive chopped grass such as elephant grass and sugar cane. In this system, the cows are mestizas and the rustic facilities
It includes commercial dairy farms, in which the main business is the production and commercialization of milk by dairy farming.
Includes a genetic improvement plan with proven sires and a targeted breeding program with specialized dairy cows. They operate with varying degrees of intensity.
These dairy farms have variable levels of technification with standardized rations throughout the year, based on sorghum silage and high-quality corn, adding the high proportions of concentrates.
In this system, there is a high percentage of individual production. Cows can be stall or semi-stables.
They receive their fibrous and concentrate rations in feeders and have areas destined for resting. The production is carried out in small or medium land extensions.
Weaknesses in small farms:
About 40% of the milk produced cannot be processed due to lack of phytosanitary controls.
And approximately 75% of small and medium producers are not part of a value chain, so they sell their milk to occasional buyers. This is directly related to the low level of technology in farm management.
The common problems are the delay in the development of the calf during the breeding and rearing period, due to feeding problems.
The lack of use of records in all stages of the animal and the care of cows before, during and after delivery.
Opportunities for the dairy sector:
Dairy farming breeders have great opportunities to locate their raw material.However, it will be necessary to carry out all the necessary management, introduce technology and quality food.
So it is necessary to produce more, to produce between 160 to 180 liters per year. You may also like to read Charolais Cattle.
It is important for the contribution to the economic development and welfare of the population:
- Provision of high-quality protein
- Matrix strength (animal traction)
- Food reserve
- Capital accumulation
- Production of fertilizer (manure)
- Reduction of production risks
- Environmental stability
Livestock production constitutes an important gross domestic contribution, even without considering the value of products such as manure or animal traction.
- Consumption of cow fat associated with high levels of manure
- Risk of contagion with bovine spongiform encephalopathy
- As ruminants, contribution to the problem of “greenhouse effect”.
The world consumption of milk and milk products keeps growing trend in recent years. You may also like to read Limousin Cattle.
Both the consumption by Regions and the growth of the consumption of dairy products in Latin America and Asia are due to the rapid growth of the urban population with better spending capacity.
Consumers around the world have a wide range of dairy products to choose from. Per capita consumption varies according to the types of economy and regions of the world.
The average consumption of developed countries is around 205 kg. In contrast, in developing countries, average consumption only reaches 37 kg.
In these countries, the demand continues to increase, but there is still a huge gap to fill. You may also like to read Ayrshire Cow.
As a reference: Wikipedia