The introduction of Cow Farming:
The Cow farming aim is to produce as many liters of good quality milk per hectare at the lowest possible cost. Breeding of cattle is the main cattle activity in terms of its contribution to the economy.
These systems productive production systems are mostly small and are based on the use of races adapted to the tropics.
The Cow farming is oriented to the production of milk. As far as space where they are sheltered, the feeding, the care and how must be milked.
The benefit of Dairy Cow Farming Business:
- Provision of high-quality protein
- Matrix force (animal traction)
- Food reserve
- Accumulation of capital
- Value added
- Production of fertilizer (manure)
- Production risk reduction
- Environmental stability
How to Start Dairy Cow Farming?
- Existence of a market for milk and/or dairy products
- Determine the present size and likely future expansion of the market, which allow the establishment of medium- and long-term production targets
- Know the environmental factors and water availability and quality; As well as the sanitary situation of the area and the availability of fodder and inputs that can, on the one hand, favor, and on the other hand limit, milk production
- Based on the above, decide on the type of cattle most appropriate to select to achieve the production objectives plotted (which may be based on pure breeds and/or crossbreeding), and establish a reasonable program of development of the Stocking population
- The cattle selected should be of good genetic quality and of optimum sanitary quality
- Size and strategic location of the farm, taking into account its distance both to the centers of availability of inputs and production of fodder, as well as to the collection center or destination of milk, as well as the availability of electrical energy and adequate Communication with them
- Plan the location and characteristics of the hull, including housing, administration, warehouses and feeding center, comfortable accommodation of the cattle and facilities for the good management of the animals
- Estructurar a program of acquisitions of equipment and machinery
- Select and train the personnel required to contract for the property
- Define roles (for all staff) and procedures (for all tasks)
Dairy Cow Breeds:
Here are the main breeds that can be used in an exclusive dairy breeding project or dual purpose.
Holstein cows are the best milk producers and because of their high production. They do not support tropical climates well, developing their qualities in cold and medium climates. These breeds are crossed with the Cebu breed in order to adapt them to the warm climates. They are characterized by their usual color white with black and occasionally white with red. Their corporal capacity is great, arriving to weigh the females between 600 and 650 kg and the males until 1200 kg Most of the animals of this race are docile and easy to handle. Holstein cows have udders in good shape with medium and rigid nipples.
The Pasiega cow is located in the municipalities of Medio Cudeyo Spain. This species is classified as a large dairy, with large udders and medium firm nipples.
The Jersey breed is the most widespread of the English dairy breeds, originating on Jersey Island in the English Channel between England and France. This breed is the smallest of the European breeds and yet they are animals of great milk production, it is the second milk breed. The Jersey breed is use for milk production. This milk makes good quality of cheese and butter. It is easy to adapt to tropical climates, reporting good yields in that climate. It is an animal of small size with an average weight in adults of between 350 and 450 kg. its Color is Light bay and black bay. The strength of this breed, to withstand heat and disease, makes it, among the temperate breeds, the most attractive to be used in crosses to improve livestock in the tropics.
The Tudanca cow born in Spain. This breed is not for meat use by the cattlemen if not in order to produce milk, its particular consistency makes them used to carry loads of trawling.
Brown Swiss has come from North American. This breed has the 2nd-highest yearly milk yield, over 9,000 to 10,000 kg per yearly. The Brown Swiss cow’s weight is from 600 to 700kg. Dairy breed with good meat, better resistance to heat and height (<3,800 m) than the Holstein and Jersey breeds.
Simmental or Fleckvieh:
Simmental has come from Bernese Oberland of western Switzerland. The Simmental cows weight from 650 to 750kg. Double purpose breed with predominant dairy ability. Good resistance to heat and height (<3,800 m).
Good dairy aptitude, recommended for crosses -, especially with Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss.
Cows from 600 to 700 kg live weight. Double Purpose Breed.
Animal comfort in the resting area depends basically on two factors:
- How soft the resting surface.
- The restrictions of space to lie down and get up.
The housing should provide adequate space for cows to lie down, get up and rest, without obstruction, injury or fear.
Bedding also plays an important role in the sleeping area. Cow beds are hygienic and efficient working solutions. So That exactly the feel of grass for a cow while protecting their feet.
Dairy cows prefer to lie down when they ruminate. If you find the animals standing with the back outside the cubicle or lying outside the cubicles, it is the sign of uncomfortable stables.
It is important that there is enough space for the head of the cow when it lies down and stands up. A too short cubicle with a wall in the front is the most common cause that free-standing cubicles are not functional. An adult cow needs at least 0.5 m of extra space in front of the head to allow it to rise (the total length of the cubicle at least 2.70 m).
The strategy of the feeding program should consider as a base the use of quality forage, supplemented with concentrated feed.
Complementation is understood as an addition of inputs (concentrate) to the base diet (forage), in order to cover a nutrient deficiency caused by problems of quantity and/or quality of the forage.
Complementing forms can be made by supplying concentrate which becomes a mixture of food, mineral and vitamin inputs. As well as additives to optimize the use and consumption of a food ration, it is recommended to prepare it as a single or fully mixed ration
Care & Management:
The management of dairy cows includes movements several times a day so that handling may to some extent affect the safety of the animal. Cows are social animals. They do not like isolated from the group. Besides, they are habit animals and have difficulty adapting to new situations. Another risk represents the excessive noise that scares the animal and causes unpredictable behavior.
Understanding this we can say that good management practices can reduce the stress and can increase the milk production bringing with it more profits to the producer. Scientific studies have shown that frightened cows produce less milk than calm cows.
There are 6 aspects of management. If applied, will help to reduce the fear in the animals allowing a calm and safe handling in addition to improving the efficiency and the safety of the employees.
- Body language during rest
- Vision of the animal
- Reaction to sound
- Balancing and exhaust zone
- Behavior of the herd
Features of Milk Breeds:
- It is one of the most important livestock activities.
- The important source of work.
- It has an angular and triangular body structure.
- Good conformation of the udder.
- High daily milk yields.
- Milk with higher protein and fat content.
- Control the health of the udder regularly
- Follow the correct milking order
- Always remove the first 3 jets of milk in a dark background pitcher
- Disinfect and dry the nipples before milking
- Check the vacuum level
- Place the milking unit on time
- Avoid over-milking
- Remove the milking unit correctly
- Sell to disinfect the nipples immediately
- Cleaning and disinfecting the milking equipment
- Ensure a proper cooling of the milk
- Controlar the milking results regularly
Destination of Milk Production:
Self-consumption: Fraction of the production of milk intended for the consumption of the family group, given to the workers as a form of payment or gift.
Cheese production on the farm: Fraction of milk production for the manufacture of cheese in facilities of the agricultural production unit without change of ownership of the commercial product.
Receipt: Center for the collection of production located in the livestock areas that then fulfills the function of milk distribution to industrial plants or cheese production.
Industrial plant: Fraction of milk production sold to the establishment dedicated to pasteurization, sterilization and/or spraying.
Quesera: Fraction of milk production sold by the producer to an industrial cheese factory, which receives the product of several agricultural production units to satisfy its raw material demand.